Illness Caused By Clostridium

July 21, 2014

Clostridium is a bacterium that comprises the species perfringens, tetani, botualinum, and difficile. The clostridia can be deadly, comprising some of the worst diseases that the medical community encounters.

Food borne botulism, the technical name of the disease, is a very dangerous food poisoning that can be found in canned food that has not been properly prepared. Most incidences are attributed to home canning, but foods produced commercially have been know to cause outbreaks. It can be found in canned foods including vegetables, tuna fish, chicken, luncheon meats, ham, sausage and lobster. Symptoms include double vision, slurred speech, weakness, paralysis and eventual respiratory failure.

Another food borne bacteria coming from clostridium is perfringens. The bacterium causes toxins that grow to high levels causing food poisoning. Cooked food that has been left out for hours is usually the host. It is most often found in institutional settings like schools, cafeterias, and hospitals, often attacking meats and gravy. Food poisoning caused by perfringens usually starts with diarrhea, vomiting and abdominal pain

Clostridium tetani causes tetanus due to a puncture wound or a trauma that leads to tissue contamination. The contamination invades the body and can cause cardiac failure in approximately 55 to 65 percent of those infected. A vaccine is available for tetanus. It is usually given in childhood and every ten years. It can also be administered at the time an injury occurs.

Perfringens that causes food borne illnesses can also cause another deadly illness called gas gangrene. Infection of a wound can lead to death within one to five days. The disease is often fatal. Gas gangrene infects a wound immediately causing the surrounding tissue to die. It may turn black or a dark green color, and have a foul odor. Fever and pain will develop around the wound and may be the first indicator. Amputation is a normal course of action to keep the infection from spreading. It is also treated with hyperbaric oxygen, and chelating agents. Antibiotics are used but not always successful.

The c. difficile bacteria produces two toxins that are usually eliminated by the normal bacteria in the intestines. When someone takes antibiotics it can destroy the normal bacteria that lives in the intestines and the toxins can grow. Onset is exhibited by diarrhea and abdominal pain. Fatality rates are 27 to 44 percent if not treated.

FDA: BBB-Clostridium perfringens
http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/FoodborneIllness/FoodborneIllnessFoodbornePathogensNaturalToxins/BadBugBook/ucm070483.htm

FDA:BBB-Clostridium botulinum
http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/FoodborneIllness/FoodborneIllnessFoodbornePathogensNaturalToxins/BadBugBook/ucm070000.htm

Southern Illinois University Carbondale: Medical Microbiology
http://www.cehs.siu.edu/fix/medmicro/clost.htm

(c) 2014 Vickie Van Antwerp

Advertisements

Dementia Or Something Worse

July 21, 2014

I received a frantic phone call one day from my mother-in-law. She was crying and hard to understand. I was finally able to calm her down enough to find out that while paying her bills she became so confused; she didn’t know how to write the checks. She asked me to come over to her house. She only lived about 15 minutes away so I hurried over and found her sitting on the couch, eyes red and swollen and a dazed look on her face. This was not the first time that she became confused.

I suggested to her that I would come over every month and write her checks for her. We could sit together and enjoy a cup of coffee and some good conversation while we did the bills. She liked that idea and so we wrote her bills together each month.

In the midst of her confusion with the checkbook, she began to feel very insecure and asked my husband, to become her power of attorney. He went to the attorney with her and they she added him to her checking account in case he needed to pay bills for her. This all took place during the summer and we thought things were working out fine but, the beginning of December brought a new symptom that landed her in the hospital. She awoke one morning so dizzy she could not stand. Her doctor admitted her to the hospital for tests. She stayed in the hospital for several days, but nothing was indicated that could explain her symptoms. She had treated with medication for her usual aliments of high blood pressure, angina and arthritis..

Christmas Eve was always spent at Mom’s. The entire family would gather and the grandchildren would open presents frantically until there was no room to walk. Mom would have a spread of deli delights for family and friends that would drop in. Later in the evening, the family would gather around and sing Christmas carols. As we sat around the dinning room table I looked over at Mom and she looked so frightened and confused, as if she did not know any of us. Her lips moved to the music, but her mind was not in the room. Before we left, we got her settled on the couch and she seemed to be a little more alert. Fortunately, her oldest son lived with and would be there if she needed anything.

Sometime in January, Mom had an appointment with her gynecologist. She had a hysterectomy thirty years before but kept up with annual visits. Mom was very short, only four foot eight, yet she weighed over two hundred pounds. When the doctor examined her she told her that she had a very large mass that she could feel across her abdomen. She wanted her to have an ultra-sound immediately. She never indicated what it might be, but as people usually do, we thought the worst.

When the results came back, the radiologist identified the very large mass in her abdomen as her uterus. We knew that wasn’t correct and so did her gynecologist. At this point the word, “cancer” appeared and we followed the next steps to a sure diagnosis without hesitation.

For the next month, Mom was bounced from one doctor to another. Her primary sent her to a general surgeon who suggested that her belly was full of fluid and if it were cancer it was very bad. He sent her back to her primary. Her primary checked her again and sent her to an oncologist. The oncologist took a blood test, checking her for ovarian cancer with the CA-125 test. As we sat in the examining room, Mom joked and laughed about her belly being so large with fluid. The doctor returned with the results and the protein was very high. He concluded that she did in fact have ovarian cancer. The entire ordeal of going from one doctor to another was exasperating for her because she did not remember the visits. When she was confronted with the news that she could have cancer, she acted surprised, as if she was hearing it for the first time. When the oncologist told her she indeed had ovarian cancer, she said that no one had mentioned it before and she began to cry. By the time we got home, she was fine and did not remember the visit.

The one thing that added to her confusion was the fact that she had a total hysterectomy twenty years earlier. She thought that meant her ovaries and tubes had been removed. Since her short term memory was all but gone, the truth wasn’t in her mind long enough to sink in.

The oncologist sent her back to her primary and he told the family he was going to enroll her on hospice. What we thought was a case of Alzheimer turned out to be end stage ovarian cancer.

She finally understood. Her short term memory loss did not take over, this time it was all real. It was still a shock to us all because she never had any pain in her abdomen. She gained a great deal of weight that turned out to be fluid. She complained about her legs hurting but she was carrying a lot of weight for her small frame so we thought nothing of it. Her mental symptoms gave rise to the thought that she was suffering from dementia. Her primary physician never suspected a thing. When the doctor checked for dementia, he said she was fine. This hidden disease was racking her body and we didn’t know it. Hospice arrived on Friday, February 25, she died on Monday.

According to the Ovarian Cancer National Alliance, ovarian cancer is called the “silent killer” because by the time it is diagnosed 75% of women will already be in the advanced stages. Some early symptoms include; bloating, pelvic or abdominal pain, difficulty
eating or feeling full. Later, there may be an urgency to urinate, fatigue, indigestion, back and leg pain. A genetic predisposition to the disease can be an indicator for a more prophylactic approach by your doctor. Make sure he/she is aware of your family history.
Some of these symptoms mimic a dozen other diseases which is why it is difficult to diagnose.

What steps can be taken to diagnose this disease before it reaches an advanced stage? Aside from a pelvic exam, we can insist on two other tests; the CA-125 blood test and a transvaginal ultrasound. Some physicians may not want to order these tests, but if you feel something is wrong, insist on it. A pap test does not diagnose ovarian cancer.

National Cancer Institute: Ovarian Cancer
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/types/ovarian/

Medline Plus: CA 125
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/007217.htm

(c) 2014 Vickie Van Antwerp


Arthrodesis

July 21, 2014

Ankle fusion is also known as ankle arthrodesis and is a corrective measure to increase the mobility of the ankle. It may also decrease the amount of pain that is experienced. Arthritis is one cause of severe pain and immobility. It can relate back to an old injury that has caused the arthritis to set into the joint. Whatever the cause, fusion may be the best treatment for some conditions.

Conditions
You may find your condition among the list outlined here. Requiring ankle fusion can begin in childhood from a fracture of the lower part of the tibia (leg bone) or the talus (ankle bone). The joint can eventually deteriorate from osteoarthritis.

Cartilage deterioration can immobilize an ankle from moving freely. The constant friction of the joints moving against each other can cause the soft tissue known as the synovitis which is very painful.

Rheumatoid arthritis is a condition of the immune system that causes inflammation and eventual deformity in joints from bone deterioration. Ankles are affected as well causing instability and keeping mobility to a minimum.

Surgery

Orthopedic surgeons perform ankle fusions. During surgery the lower part of the tibia and fibula leg bones are shaved and smoothed during surgery. The upper part of the talus is also shaved and smoothed. The bones are cleaned with a saline solution, careful not to leave any bone fragments.

Fusions are accomplished with screws that secure bone between the joint.
External fixation places pins through the joint that are attached to an external plate. The plate is removed when fixation has been achieved.

Complications

Any anesthesia can be a risk, especially general. Vessel and nerve damage can take place causing permanent damage. It can leave the patient with less mobility then before surgery.

Infection can develop in the wound causing more surgery to drain the infection.

Union deficits can occur such as an imbalanced union of the joint or no union of the joint.
Both can result in more surgery to correct the problem.

Recovery

The average recovery time includes 12 weeks using an ankle brace. After the brace is removed physical therapy follows. To assist with weight bearing and comfort, your physician may decide to order a shoe device.

Tips
Search for an orthopedic surgeon that is qualified. Check credentials on the state medical board website.
Do not bear weight on the joint after surgery until instructed by the surgeon.
Report any inflammation of the wound immediately.
Contact the surgeon if the joint slips, is weak or misaligned after healing.

Mayo Clinic: Ankle Fusion Surgery
http://www.mayoclinic.org/ankle-surgery/anklefusion.html

The Foot and Ankle Clinic: Ankle Fusion
http://www.thefootandankleclinic.com/ankle-fusion.htm

Orthogate: Ankle Fusion
http://www.orthogate.org/patient-education/ankle/ankle-fusion.html

(c) 2014 Vickie Van Antwerp


CHOOSING PAINT FOR A CALMING BEDROOM

November 8, 2011

INTRODUCTION

If you are planning to decorate your bedroom but are not sure what color scheme to use, consider choosing paint colors for a calming bedroom effect. Wall color can possibly help you sleep better. According to All-Home Décor, emotions that are evoked by blues and greens create a sense of serenity and peace because they are associated with nature. Blue affects cravings for less food through its calming nature.

Plan your bedroom design before searching paint and accessories. If you are not replacing any furniture decide on a color change. Wood furniture looks different against a blue wall then a white headboard. Another consideration is how the lighting in the room can change the hue of colors.

COLOR CHOICES

The goal is choosing paint colors for a calming bedroom. Start with the planning design. Pick up color cards in blue, green; the two main calming colors. Use grid paper to draw a layout of furniture in the bedroom, including where you plan to place any lighting fixtures. Decide where the focal point of the room will be. When you walk into the room, what catches your eye first? This is your first impression and can set the mood for the room immediately. Poorly placed furniture can have an effect on the mood. Too much furniture can make the room look cluttered and set off an imbalanced feeling. Test the furniture placement on the grid sheet for the best layout.

Experiment with the colors from the paint cards. Look at each one for a few seconds and record your feelings. Which one gave you a calm, warm feeling? Which one do you like best? This should help you to narrow down the colors to use. Light blue walls give the appearance of expansion to a wall, according to Dream Home Decorating. If you have a small room, light blue can make it appear larger. Blue also cools down a room. Hot sunny rooms benefit from blue walls but north facing rooms that get the cold winds of winter will require more blankets.

The color green has the same calming effect as blue but it is harder to achieve. Dream Home Decorating suggests using green hues mixed with other colors like grey and pink to give more depth.  Avoid solid dark green colors around window trims. The green trim can appear fake against nature’s scenery. Test lighting against color swatches in different areas of the room to see how the colors change and where shadows are cast.

CONCLUSION

Choosing paint colors for a calming bedroom effect depends on the room, lighting and your taste. Experiment with color swatches. Some stores will give customers a small amount of paint to help them decide on the right color. If you know you are going to paint the wall, use the color samples on different areas in the bedroom and check lighting and furniture against the colors. View the colors during the day in sunlight and artificial lighting at night. Add colors that you plan to use with the wall covering to see how they blend. Plan on a new bedspread and curtains that include all of the colors used to make your bedroom a calm and relaxing room.

 REFERENCE

All-Home Décor: Psychology of Colors Choosing Color for the Bedroom

http://www.all-homedecor.com/color/bedroom.htm

Do It Yourself: Popular Bedroom Wall Paint Colors

http://www.doityourself.com/stry/popular-bedroom-wall-paint-colors

Dream Home Decorating: Psychological Effects of the Color Blue

http://www.dreamhomedecorating.com/psychological-effects-color-blue.html

Dream Home Decorating: Psychological Effects of the Color Green

http://www.dreamhomedecorating.com/psychological-effects-color-green.html

 

 

 

 

 


Check Your Doctor’s Credentials

October 25, 2011

Dr. Schreiber of San Augustine giving a typhoi...

Image via Wikipedia

Why is it a good idea to check your doctor’s credentials? Perhaps, you would like to know where your doctor went to college or served his residency. Did he receive his education in the United States and does it matter to you? Has he ever been disciplined by a medical board or sued for malpractice? Years ago, I investigated the doctor that was hired by a hospice provider to treat my mother. It turned out that the doctor had spent the last ten years teaching high school chemistry in Chicago because his license had been suspended in two states. There were numerous complaints against him involving medical care and he owed thousands of dollars to a major medical insurance carrier for over payments he received.  Since then, it has become routine for me to check a doctor’s credentials before making an appointment.

Each state maintains a list of all medical professionals required to be licensed. A search  through the internet will quickly give you the information you are seeking. You will need the name of the doctor and the city he practices in. In some cases you can use just the surname to gain results, but make sure the full name matches your information.

Use a Yahoo or Google search for the medical board site in your state. Be sure it is the site maintained by the state and not an information site that requires a fee. Follow instructions for looking up a licensee. When you open the page associated with your search, check all of the tabs. You will find education, honors and awards, papers, general information, practice information, discipline actions, malpractice and convictions tabs.

Being informed helps you to make better decisions about your health care. It is your right to choose a health care provider based on his credentials and not a referral. If you have to choose from a list provided by your insurance carrier, check them all and then decide. Don’t let someone else choose for you.

You can also check the license of other health professions within the practice such as physician assistants and nurses. You might be surprised at what you find.

Reference

North Carolina Medical Board: http://www.ncmedboard.org

New Jersey Medical Board: www.state.nj.us/lps/ca/bme/index.html